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Anti-Chaining Laws

Page Updated December 2011

Visit our How You Can Improve Lawspage for a step-by-step guide 
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Educational Powerpoint (PPT file for general audiences) Petition Flyer/Cover Sheet
Educational Powerpoint (PDF file for general audiences) How Chaining Laws Work in 7 Communities
Ordinance PowerPoint (PPT file for law makers)
     View speakers notes for instructions on using
How Enforceable Will Our Law Be?
Chaining Q & A Word Animal Control Interviews re: Chaining Bans
Chaining Q & A PDF How Laws Impact Loose Dogs/Dog Bites
Photos of Injured Children and Chained Dogs PDF Visit DDB, HelpingAnimals, ASPCA, and HSUS for more resources!

The following communities have banned or regulated chaining in their 
animal protection ordinances.
Animallaw.info is another good source of information.


Statewide Laws
(East Coast States)

 

Virginia

Title 3.1

"Adequate space" ... When an animal is tethered, "adequate space" means a tether that permits the above actions and is appropriate to the age and size of the animal; is attached to the animal by a properly applied collar, halter, or harness configured so as to protect the animal from injury and prevent the animal or tether from becoming entangled with other objects or animals, or from extending over an object or edge that could result in the strangulation or injury of the animal; and is at least three times the length of the animal, as measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail, except when the animal is being walked on a leash or is attached by a tether to a lead line. When freedom of movement would endanger the animal, temporarily and appropriately restricting movement of the animal according to professionally accepted standards for the species is considered provision of adequate space.


Section 796.68. Care of animals by owner; penalty.
A. Each owner shall provide for each of his companion animals:
4. Adequate space in the primary enclosure for the particular type of animal depending upon its age, size, species, and weight;


West Virginia


Chapter 61-8-19. Cruelty to animals; penalties; exclusions.

(a) If any person … cruelly chains any animal …, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than three hundred nor more than two thousand dollars or confined in jail not more than six months, or both.

 


Communities that Prohibit Chaining

 

Collier County Florida
2009

b)Any enclosure used as a primary means of confinement for a dog must meet the definition of proper enclosure as stated in Section 14-35 of this Article. It shall be unlawful for a responsible party to tether a dog while outdoors, except when all of the following conditions are met. This section shall not apply to the transportation of dogs:

(1) The dog is in visual range of the responsible party, and the responsible party is located outside with the dog.
(2) The tether is connected to the dog by a buckle-type collar or a body harness made of nylon or leather, not less than one inch in width.
(3) The tether has the following properties: It is at least five times the length of the dog's body, as measured from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail; it terminates at both ends with a swivel; it does not weigh more than ? of the dog's weight; and it is free of tangles.
(4) The dog is tethered in such a manner as to prevent injury, strangulation, or entanglement.
(5) The dog is not outside during a period of extreme weather, including without limitation extreme heat or near-freezing temperatures, thunderstorms, tornadoes, tropical storms, or hurricanes.
(6) The dog has access to water, shelter, and dry ground.
(7) The dog is at least six months of age. Puppies shall not be tethered.
(8) The dog is not sick or injured.
(9) Pulley, running line, or trolley systems are at least 15 feet in length and are less than 7 feet above the ground.
(10) If there are multiple dogs, each dog is tethered separately.


Escambia County Florida
2010

Tether means to restrain an animal by tying to any stationary object or structure, including but not limited to a house, tree, fence, post, garage or shed, by any means, including but not limited to, a chain, rope, cord, leash or pulley/running line, but shall NOT include the use of a leash when walking an animal.

No animals under six months of age shall be tethered.

Those animals over six months in age can only be tethered when:

The animal is in visible range of the responsible party.
The tether is a minimum of six feet or is at least 5 times the length of the animal, has a swivel at both ends and does not weigh more than 1/16 of the animal’s weight.

Overhead run/pulley line shall be at least 15 feet in length and no less than seven feet above the ground at all times.
Tethers must be fastened to a properly fitted body harness or buckle collar made of nylon or leather.
Tether must be free from entanglement and other obstructions at all times.
Tethered animal shall have access to potable water, food, shelter and dry ground at all times.
Animals shall not be tethered while sick, injured or in distress.
Animals shall not be tethered outside during a period of extreme weather, including but not limited to, extreme heat, extreme cold, thunderstorms, tornadoes, tropical storms, or hurricanes.
Multiple animals must be tethered separately.


Miami, Florida - April 2008
Tethering is prohibited unless the owner is outside with the dog and other requirements are met.

The Preamble to Miami’s new ordinance notes: “improper tethering and care of dogs is atrocious and made worse by the extreme heat in South Florida” and “improper tethering of dogs is problematic, injurious and can be life threatening to dogs.”

(a) As used in this section, tether means to restrain a dog by tying the dog to any object or structure, including without limitation a house, tree, fence,  post, garage, or shed, by any means, including without limitation a chain,
rope, cord, leash, or running line. Tethering shall not include using a leash to walk a dog.
(b) It shall be unlawful for a responsible party to tether the dog while outdoors, except when all of the following conditions are met:
(1) The dog is in visual range of the responsible party, and the responsible party is located outside with the dog.
(2) The tether is connected to the dog by a buckle-type collar or a body harness made of nylon or leather, not less than one inch in width.
(3) The tether has the following properties: it is at least five times the length of the dog's body, as measured from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail; it terminates at both ends with a swivel; it does not weigh more than
1/8 of the dog's weight; and it is free of tangles.
(4) The dog is tethered in such a manner as to prevent injury, strangulation, or entanglement.
(5) The dog is not outside during a period of extreme weather, including without limitation extreme heat or near-freezing temperatures, thunderstorms, tornadoes, tropical storms, or hurricanes.
(6) The dog has access to water, shelter, and dry ground.
(7) The dog is at least six (6) months of age. Puppies shall not be tethered.
(8) The dog is not sick or injured.
(9) Pulley, running line, or trolley systems are at least 15 feet in length and are less than 7 feet above the ground.
(10) If there are multiple dogs, each dog is tethered separately.


Okaloosa, Florida (population 100,000)
Tethering dogs and cats is prohibited.

Sec. 5-28. Restraint and confinement to property. (d) Dogs or cats shall not be chained, tied, fastened or otherwise tethered to dog houses, trees, fences or other stationary objects as a means of confinement to property.


Seminole Florida
2009
SEMINOLE – It’s official. Anyone who ties up an unattended dog will be subject to a fine from the city of Seminole. After hearing arguments from both sides of the issue, the Seminole City Council voted unanimously on second reading Dec. 22 to pass an ordinance that prohibits dog owners from leaving their pets chained up...Councilor Dan Hester, who sponsored the ordinance, reminded Doyle the ordinance does not prevent dog owners from tethering in all instances.

“You can (tether a dog) but you must be with your dog,” said Hester. “If you leave to go to the store, you would be in violation of the ordinance.”...The ordinance affects only pet owners who leave dogs outside unattended. Dogs may still be on a tether if the owner is outside within visual range of the animal...Tethered canines must be at least 6 months old and have access to water, shelter and dry ground. Pulleys, running lines and trolley systems must be at least 15 feet in length and no less than 7 feet above the ground.


Blakely, Georgia - March 2008
Tethering dogs and cats is prohibited.

www.earlycountynews.com

Chaining or tying dogs is no longer an option for city residents. The Blakely City Council voted at its March 4, 2008 meeting to adopt a change in the city's animal control ordinance that prohibits tethering dogs and requires owners to provide a pen or fenced yard instead.

In addition, the ordinance requires that owners prevent their animals from becoming nuisances to others and that when not secured in a pen or fenced yard, dogs must be on a leash held by an able-bodied person.


Chatham County, Georgia

August 12, 2005
This ordinance prohibits the tethering of dogs and cats to any object, stationary or otherwise, in unincorporated areas of the county.

§ 22-139 Tethering.
It shall be prohibited in unincorporated Chatham County to retain or confine to property of dogs or cats in a manner achieved by stationary or non-stationary dog houses, barrels or other stationary object as such means of confinement within the property.

22-137 Animal Neglect
A person that is the owner or custodian of any animal may be found to be guilty of animal neglect by a finding that any one or more of the following conditions were allowed to exist:

a) Lack of immediately available proper drinking water or inadequate supply of drinkable water
b) Lack of wholesome, palatable, free from contamination food or sustenance to be provided in sufficient quantity
c) failure to provide an animal sufficient space to stand to full height, turn around, lay dog and make normal postural adjustments for comfort
d) the lack of providing a stationary shelter from weather such as sun, rain, wind, or inclement weather or to maintain said shelter in a clean, sanitary condition free of excrement and unreasonable objectionable odors.
e) to have an animal in possession that is known to or suspected to have an injury, accidental or deliberate, or to exhibit any signs of disease, shock, temperature fluctuations, tremors, swelling, open wounds, inability to eat, blistering or abnormal bleeding, partial paralysis, discharging blood or mucus. failure to arrange for medical care.


Cobb County, Georgia

 Sec. 10-11. Control of Animal.
(a) General Control.Restraint of dogs and/or animals shall be maintained as follows:
a. When upon the premises of the owner, all animals shall be kept indoors or in a primary enclosure as defined by this chapter in such a manner as to contain the animal within the bounds of the owner’s premises, or
on a leash in the hands of a person that possesses the ability to restrain the animal. Tethering as a means of primary enclosure is not permitted.


Houston Co. Georgia
Restraint means any animal which is on a leash or at heel or beside a competent person and obedient to that person's commands, or within a vehicle being driven or parked on the streets and roads of Houston County, or in a fenced area within the real property limits of the owner (if zoned R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, RMH or PUD), or within the property limits of a RAG zone. Invisible fence systems are allowed if they are maintained in good working order and keep the animal contained. The primary means of restraint within the property may not be by means of a chain, cable, rope or other stakeout or tieout device.


Gwinett County, Georgia

Sec. 10-29. Restraint.
(a) It shall be unlawful for any owner or possessor of any dog to fail to keep the dog under restraint or control as provided for in this section.
(b) A dog is considered not under restraint or control when it is running at large, whether wearing a collar and tag or not. Reasonable care and precautions shall be taken to prevent the dog from leaving the real property limits of its owner, possessor, or custodian, and ensure that:
(1) It is securely and humanely enclosed within a house, building, fence, pen or other enclosure out of which it cannot climb, dig, jump, or otherwise escape on its own volition; and that such enclosure is securely locked at any time the animal is left unattended; or
(2) It is securely and humanely restrained by an invisible containment system. If using an invisible containment system, a sign must be posted on the property indicating that the system is in place; or
(3) It is on a leash and under the control of a competent person; or it is off leash and obedient to and under voice command of a competent person who is in the immediate proximity of the dog any time it is not restrained as provided for in subsection (1) or (2) above while on the owner's property.
(4) It shall be unlawful for the owner or possessor of any animal to restrain or anchor an animal by means of a tether, chain, cable, rope or cord, unless the tether or other restraint is being held by a competent person.


Macon/Bibb County Georgia
Sec. 5-20. Tethering and transport, prohibited conduct.
(a) It shall be unlawful for any owner or other person controlling or possessing any dog or cat to:
(1) Leave a dog or cat tethered outdoors while unattended by its owner.
(2) Tether a dog or cat except by means of a properly fitting harness or collar of nylon or leather construction and a tether in proportion to the size of the animal. The tether must be at least fifteen (15) feet in length with a swivel at both ends.
(3) Tether a dog or cat outdoors under conditions where the animal or tether can become entangled on the tether, another animal, or some other object or where the tether can restrict the animal's access to suitable, edible, and sufficient food, clean water (cool in summer and unfrozen in winter), and appropriate shelter.
(4) Tether a dog or cat outdoors in unsafe or unsanitary conditions or when said tether does not allow the animal to defecate or urinate in an area separate from the areas where it must eat, drink or lie down.
(5) Expose a dog or cat to any weather conditions that cause immediate imminent threat to the animal's physical well-being.
(6) Transport any dog or cat in the bed of a pick truck unless the dog or cat is secured inside of a commercially designed container intended for the safe transport of dog and cats or otherwise secured so as not to allow the dog or cat the ability to escape from the vehicle.
(b) A person who is convicted, pleads guilty or nolo contendre to a violation of this section shall suffer the following minimum punishment:
(1) First offense, minimum fine: thirty-five dollars ($35.00).
(2) Second offense within a one-year period, minimum fine: fifty dollars ($50.00).
(3) Third offense within a one-year period, minimum fine: seventy-five dollars ($75.00).
(4) Fourth or subsequent offense within a one-year period, minimum fine: one hundred dollars ($100.00).


New Hanover, North Carolina
Chaining or tethering dogs is prohibited. A chain or rope is not to be used in place of a leash when walking dogs.

Sec. 3.4 (d) Restraint: An animal is under restraint within the meaning of this chapter if it is controlled by means of a leash, or is sufficiently near the owner or handler to e under his direct control and is obedient to that person’s command; or is on or within a vehicle being driven or parked; or is within a secure enclosure. Exceptions to restraint are as follows: Organized and lawful animal functions e.g. hunting, obedience training, field and water training, law enforcement training and/or in the pursuit of working or competing in those legal endeavors. When a dog is on the property of its owner of guardian it shall be secured when not supervised by a competent person. Ropes, chains, and the like shall not constitute adequate security under this ordinance.


Durham County, North Carolina

September 2008

From
www.indyweek.com:

By a 4-1 vote, Durham County Commissioners Monday night passed several amendments to a local ordinance that outlaws the unattended tethering of dogs, effective Jan. 1, 2010. Tethering is defined as tying out or fastening a dog outdoors on a rope, chain or other kind of line; it does not include putting a dog on an attended leash. The amendments also cover physical space requirements for outdoor enclosures, such as pens: Dogs less than 20 pounds must have no less than 100 square feet of unobstructed space per animal, not including a dog house; dogs more than 20 pounds must have no less than 200 square feet. 
 


Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

This ordinance prohibits the tethering of dogs. All outdoor animals, cats as well as dogs, must be kept in a 36-square-foot enclosure per animal with a minimum height of six feet

Section 91.22. Prohibition Against Tethering of Dogs.

A. It shall be unlawful to tether an unattended dog outside of the house.


Kanawha County, West Virginia - August 2009
Anti-tethering law prohibits dogs from being tied up outside unless their owners are outside with them. The law also states that animals must have adequate shelter and they cannot be kept outside in extreme weather conditions.


Communities that Limit Chaining by Time


Dania Beach, Florida

July 26, 2005
This ordinance prohibits the chaining of dogs for longer than one hour in any 24-hour period and allows such tethering only under certain conditions.

Section 5-15. Dogs at large prohibited.

(b) It shall be a violation of this section for the owner of any dog to tie, chain, or otherwise tether a dog... outdoors; provided, however, that a dog may be temporarily tethered, tied or chained outdoors for a total period of time not exceeding one hour on any day between the hours of 9:00 am and 6:00 pm if accompanied by its owner or any person over the age of fifteen years. No dog shall be tethered, tied or chained outdoors at any time for purposes of training on any treadmill device. Dog owners must provide clean, safe and humane conditions for dogs which are outdoors on private property, which conditions include, but are not limited to, sufficient food and water, shelter from cold, heat and rain, with adequate shelter ventilation.


Fort Lauderdale, Florida

June 16, 2006

This ordinance prohibits the tethering of cats, dogs who are under the age of 6 months, and any dog during periods of extreme weather or for longer than 15 minutes between the hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p.m. Any tethering of dogs during other times must meet certain conditions.

Section 6-35. Supervision and Confinement; Tethering.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any dog or cat to confine or tether that animal outdoors during periods of extreme weather, such as periods of unusually cold or hot temperatures, or periods of poor air quality, or when a hurricane or tropical storm warning has been issued.

B. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any dog or cat and who confines that dog or cat outdoors on private property to fail to provide the animal with:

     6. A tether, which may be employed subject to the following regulations:

a. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any dog that is under the age of six months to tie, chain, or otherwise tether a dog that is under the age of six months outdoors. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any cat to tie, chain, or otherwise tether a cat outdoors.

b. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any dog that is over the age of six months to tie, chain, or otherwise tether a dog outdoors between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. except that a dog of any age may be temporarily tethered, tied, or chained outdoors for a total time period not exceeding fifteen minutes. At other times, it is permitted to tie, chain, or otherwise tether a dog that is over the age of six months outdoors if the dog is harnessed by a properly-fitting body harness that is fastened to either

i. a tether that is at least ten feet long and that is free from entanglement and that allows the dog to move unheeded; or

ii. an overhead run, which is an overhead wire at least 10 feet long to which the dog’s body harness is attached by a leash or chain, that allows the dog to move unheeded.


Hollywood, Florida

July 6, 2005
This ordinance prohibits the chaining of dogs between the hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p.m. and allows tethering during other times only under certain conditions.

Chapter 92.08 Animal Care; Manner of Keeping.

(C) Animals maintained on a tether must be in an area free of objects that may cause entanglements. All tethers must be a minimum of six (6) feet in length and longer if appropriate for breed (i.e., Irish Wolfhound, Borzoi, Great Dane, St. Bernard, etc.). Choke type or prong type collars shall be used only while the animal is under the handler’s direction control. Between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., animals shall not be on a tether outdoors.


Oakland Park, Florida
July 6, 2006

This ordinance prohibits the tethering of cats, dogs who are under the age of 6 months, and any animal during periods of extreme weather or for longer than 15 minutes between the hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p.m. Any tethering of dogs during other times must meet certain conditions.

Section 4.23 Supervision and Confinement; Tethering.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any dog, cat or other animal to confine or tether that animal outdoors during periods of extreme weather or when a hurricane warning has been issued.

B. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any dog, cat or other animal who confines that animal outdoors on private property to fail to provide the animal with:

     6. a tether in lieu of a fenced yard which may be employed subject to the following regulations:

a. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any dog that is under the age of six months to tie, chain, or otherwise tether

b. outdoors a dog that is under the age of six months. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any cat to tie, chain or otherwise tether outdoor a cat.

c. It shall be unlawful for any person who owns or any person who is in charge or in control of any dog that is over the age of six months to tie, chain or otherwise tether outdoors a dog between the hours of 10:00 am and 5:00 pm except that a dog of any age may be temporarily tethered, tied or chained outdoors for a total time period not exceeding fifteen minutes. At other times, it is permitted to tie, chain or otherwise tether outdoors a dog that is over the age of six months if the dog is harnessed by a properly fitting body harness that is fastened to either

i. a tether that is at least ten feet long and that is free from entanglement and that allows the dog to move unheeded;

ii. an overhead run, which is at least ten feet long to which the dog’s body harness is attached by a leash or chain that allows the dog to move unheeded.


Orange County, Florida

July 12, 2005

This ordinance prohibits the chaining of dogs between the hours of 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. and during periods of extreme weather. Tethering is allowed during other times only under certain conditions.

Section 5-29. Definitions.

Restraining Device shall mean a chain, cord, or cable, with a minimum length of ten feet, used to confine an animal on an owner’s property. This device must provide for humane, unrestrained range of movement for the animal to insure that the animal is not exposed to hazard or injury and shall not prevent the animal from having food, water, shelter, adequate ventilation, protection from the elements or other care generally considered to be normal and usual. This device shall be proportional in size, weigh no more than 1/8 of the dog or puppy’s body weight, and designed for use with the specific breed of animal with an appropriate collar. These devices shall not be used to confine a dog on an owner’s property between the hours of 9:00 am and 5:00 pm, 365 days a year and during times of extreme weather, e.g., hurricanes, below freezing conditions.


Pembroke Park, Florida

Sept. 14, 2005

This ordinance prohibits the tethering of dogs for more than one total hour on any day between the hours of 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. and all tethering of dogs at other times.

Sec. 4-11. Impoundment and Care of Dogs.

(a) It shall be a violation of this section for the owner, agent, employee, servant or other person having charge of the premises where any dog is located to tie, chain or otherwise tether a dog outdoors; provided, however, that a dog may be temporarily tethered, tied or chained outdoors for a total period not exceeding 1 hour on any day between the hours of 9AM and 5PM if accompanied by its owner or any other person over the age of fifteen years.


Tarpon Springs, Florida
2009


§ 4-5. TETHERING OF DOGS.
(a) It is unlawful for any person to continuously tether or picket a dog for longer than one continuous
hour except that picketing or tethering of the same dog may resume after a hiatus of three continuous
hours after the dog was last tethered or picketed, but no dog shall be tethered or picketed more than
three times in any twenty-four hour period.
(b) No dog shall be tethered or picketed in extreme weather or under conditions that expose the dog
to unreasonable risk of danger or harm.
(c) The tether, leash, chain, or rope of a tethered or picketed dog shall be at least three times the length
of the dog's body and shall allow the dog reasonable movement, but shall not be long enough to reach
the city right-of-way.
(d) The tether, leash, chain, rope, collaring device, and any assembly or attachments thereto, used to
tether or picket a dog shall not weigh more than one-eighth the weight of the dog or, due to weight, inhibit
the free movement of the dog.
(e) Dogs shall be tethered or picketed in such a manner as to prevent injury, strangulation, or entanglement
on fences, trees, shrubs, or other man made or natural objects.
(f) It is unlawful to attach a tether, leash, chain, rope, or other tether restraint implements directly to a
dog without the proper use of a collar, harness, or other device designed for that purpose. Such collar,
harness, or other device must be made from a material and used in a fashion that prevents injury to the
dog. Pinch or choke collars may not be used to tether or picket a dog.
(g) A person violating this ordinance the first time shall be given a written warning. Subsequent violations
shall be punishable as a fine of the following class under the Uniform Fine Schedule for Local Ordinance
Violations adopted by the Circuit Court for the Sixth Judicial Circuit in and for Pasco and Pinellas
Counties.
First violation…Warning
Second violation . . . Class III fine $138.00
Third violation . . . Class II fine $188.00
Fourth and subsequent violation . . . Class I fine $213.00
Each day that a violation of this ordinance continues or occurs shall constitute a separate offense.
(Ord. 2009-11, passed 6-16-09)


West Palm Beach, Florida
Dogs may not be chained between 10:00 am and 5:00 p.m. year-round.

Ordinance No. 2003-029
August 19, 2003

Animals may not be tethered outdoors between 10 a.m. and 5 p.m.

All tethers must be at least 6 feet in length and may not be attached to choke- or prong-type collars unless the animal is under the handler’s direct control.


Wilton Manors, Florida

City Commissioners passed an an anti-tethering or anti-chaining ordinance, to wit:
- no one may tether or chain an animal that is younger than 6 months old;
- no one can tether or chain an animal outdoors unless they provide the animal with a properly fitting collar, the tether or chain is at least 3 times the length of the animal's body, and the animal is not left tethered or chained for more than 15 minutes between the hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p.m.
- animals tethered or chained outside must have adequate shelters, periodic supervision, and an exercise area of no less than 150 square feet of space.
- no animal may be tethered or chained outdoors during periods of extreme weather or when a hurricane warning is in effect.

The vote in favor of the ordinance by the city commissioners was unanimous.


DeKalb County, Georgia
July, 2004

Any animal that is housed outside of its owner’s house shall be housed in a proper enclosure. The owner shall also ensure that the proper enclosure contains at least 100 square feet of open space.

Tethering of an animal is prohibited.

As a secondary means of restraint to a proper enclosure, an animal may be attached to a running cable line or trolley system providing that:

  • A running cable line or trolley is set inside a proper enclosure;
  • Only one animal may be attached to each running cable line or trolley system;
  • No animal may be attached to a running cable line or trolley system for more than 12 hours in a twenty-four hour period;
  • No animal may be attached to a running cable line or trolley system between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.;
  • Tethers and cables attaching the animal to the running cable line or trolley system must be made of a substance which cannot be chewed by the animal;
  • A running cable line or trolley system must have a swivel installed at each end and be attached to a stationary object that cannot be moved by the animal;
  • The running cable line or trolley system must be at least ten feet in length and mounted at least four feet and no more than seven feet above ground;
  • The length of the tether from the running cable line or trolley system to the animal’s collar should allow access to the maximum available exercise area and allow the animal free access to food, water, and shelter;
  • Be attached to a properly fitted harness or collar not used for the display of a current rabies tag and other identification; and with enough room between the collar and the dog’s throat through which two fingers may fit; and
  • Be tethered at sufficient distance from any other objects to prohibit the tangling of the cable, from extending over an object or an edge that could result in injury of strangulation of the animal and be of sufficient distance from any fence so as to prohibit the animal access to the fence.


    Jefferson County, Kentucky
    Chaining a dog for more than eight hours in a twenty-four hour period is prohibited.

    1. For all animals except puppies and dogs, restraint shall mean on the premises of the owner, or if off the premises of the owner, under restraint by means of a lead or leash and under the control of a responsible person.
    2. For puppies and dogs restraint shall mean on the premises of the owner and confined in a secure enclosure as previously defined, or accompanied by the owner on the owner’s property and under their direct control. If off the premises of the owner, the animal must be restrained by a lead or leash and under the control of a responsible person.
    3. A dog or puppy may be restrained by a fixed point chain or tether for no more than eight hours in a twenty-four hour period.
    4. A dog may be exclusively restrained by a chain or tether provided that it is at least ten feet in length and attached to a pulley or trolley mounted on a cable which is also at least ten feet in length and mounted no more than seven feet above ground level.
    5. Any tethering system employed shall not allow the dog or puppy to leave the owners property.
    6. No chain or tether shall weigh more than 1/8 of the dog or puppy's body weight.
    7. Any chain or tether shall be at least ten (10) feet in length and have swivels on both ends.
    8. Any chain or tether must be attached to a properly fitting collar or harness worn by the animal.

    (C)Any dog or cat which is impounded a second time for violation of restraint requirements within a twelve month period, the owner shall have the animal spayed or neutered within seven days of the redemption. Verification from the veterinarian performing the surgery shall be provided to the Division in writing within seven days of the surgery.


    Louisville, Kentucky

    Restraint

    (2) For puppies and dogs restraint shall mean on the premises of the owner and confined in a secure enclosure as previously defined, or accompanied by the owner on the owner's property and under their direct control. If off the premises of the owner, the animal must be restrained by a lead or leash and under the control of a responsible person.

    (a) It is prohibited to exclusively restrain a dog or puppy by a fixed-point chain or tether. A fixed-point restraint may be used temporarily but not to exceed one (1) hour in a twenty-four (24) hour period.


    Carroll County, Maryland
    2006


    A. The owner of a dog shall keep the dog under restraint or effective control at all times.

    B. The owner of an animal shall prevent the animal, except a cat, from leaving the owner's property unattended or unrestrained.

    C. The owner of a dog shall not tie, chain, cable or in any way tether a dog outside for more than 12 hours a day (and at no time between 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m.).

    D. A tether to confine a dog shall be a minimum of 4½ times the length of the dog (nose to tail base) and under no circumstances less than 10 feet long.

    E. The tether shall have swivels at both ends to prevent kinking and knotting. The area covered shall be maintained so that the tether cannot become entangled and positioned so that the dog cannot wrap the tether around posts, trees, debris or hang by jumping a fence or guardrail.

    F. The owner of animal(s) that are fenced shall erect fencing normally considered suitable for the species and type of animal to be contained. Fencing shall be appropriate so as to keep the intended animals restrained within its boundaries. Fencing shall be monitored, well maintained and kept in good repair. In the case of a dog, if the owner utilizes an "invisible fence" to restrain a dog it may only be used if it consistently and effectively restrains the dog and is appropriate to be used for the dog in question. No aggressive dog may be restrained behind an "invisible fence".

    G. All areas where animals are confined shall be maintained so as to provide a safe and healthy environment for the animals within the confinement.


    Frederick County, Maryland

    October 2008
    § 1-5-26. PROPER RESTRAINT, SHELTER, PROTECTION AND CARE FOR DOGS.
    (A) Restraint requirement.

    (1) It shall be unlawful for any person to tether, fasten, chain, tie, restrain or cause a dog to be fastened, chained, tied or restrained to any stationary or inanimate object by means of a rope, chain, strap or other physical restraint for the purpose of confinement for more than ten hours, cumulatively in any 24-hour period.

    (2) The dog must be tethered by a non- choke type collar or a body harness to a tether that is at least four times the body length of the dog, measured from the dog's nose to the back of the hindquarters, or at a minimum be ten feet in length, and which the tether is free from entanglement.

    (3) The tether shall have swivels at both ends and all areas of confinement shall be maintained as to provide a safe and healthy environment for the dog.

    (4) An individual found chaining or tethering an animal in violation of this section has 30 days to provide other means of confinement, as long as other conditions of confinement and care are being met. The grace period is null and void immediately if the owner, at any time during the grace period, is not in compliance with other applicable laws relating to animals.

    (5) Individuals who do not comply within the 30-day grace period are subject to fines and penalties stipulated in this chapter.

    (B) Shelter and outdoor enclosure requirements.

    (1) Proper shelter, including protection from the weather and elements, shall be provided at all times. The shelter for a dog shall have a weatherproof roof, enclosed sides, a doorway, and a solid floor raised at least two inches above the ground. No interior surfaces shall be metal. The shelter shall have an entryway that the dog can easily enter and sufficient in size for a dog to stand, turn around, lie down, and exit in a natural manner. The shelter shall have adequate ventilation and protection from temperature extremes at all times.

    (2) Bedding, such as wood shavings, straw or other material, shall be provided in sufficient quantity for insulation. Bedding shall be kept dry.

    (3) Shade, separate from the shelter, either natural or manmade, shall be available at all times to a tethered dog, or a dog confined to an outdoor enclosure.

    (4) Any dog confined within an outdoor enclosure must have adequate space for exercise. A minimum of 100 square feet is required. Dogs over 75 pounds must have an additional 50 square feet. Seventy-five square feet is required for each additional dog kept within the same enclosed area.

    (C) Care requirements.

    (1) Any person owning or having care, control or custody of a dog shall provide daily food that is free from contamination and is of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to maintain the animal in good health.

    (2) Potable water must be accessible to the dog at all times.

    (3) The dog must receive care and medical treatment for injuries, parasites and disease, sufficient to maintain the dog in good health.

    (4) Any outdoor area where a dog is confined must be kept free of excretions and contaminated materials and cleaned regularly.

    (D) Penalties. A violation of this section may result in a civil citation pursuant to §1-5-53 of this chapter, or impoundment of the dog(s), or both.

    (Ord. 08-24-500, 9-23-2008)


    Camden, New Jersey
    January 11, 2001

    Animals may not be chained or tethered in any manner for more than two consecutive hours.
    § 210-45. Unlawful to chain or tether animals.

    Animals shall not be chained, tied, fastened or otherwise tethered to dog houses, trees, stakes, poles, fences, walls, or any other stationary objects outdoors or indoors as a means of confinement for more than two consecutive hours in any twenty-four-hour period.


    Lower Township, New Jersey
    April 19, 2004

    This ordinance limits the chaining of dogs to nine hours in any 24-hour period. Tethers must be lightweight, at least 15 feet long, and tangle free. They must allow a dog to move freely and have access to a doghouse.

    Section 166-1 (E) Chaining or Tethering of Dogs: Dogs must be able to move freely when chained or tethered and shall be confined for a period no greater than nine hours within a twenty-four hour period. The size of the tether or chain must be a minimum of 15 linear feet and shall remain tangle free. Dogs must be equipped with properly fitting harness or buckle type collar. The tether or chain shall be constructed of lightweight cable. A doghouse shall be accessible to dogs that are chained or tethered.


    Ocean City, New Jersey
    July 21, 2004

    This ordinance prohibits the chaining of dogs who have not been spayed or neutered. The chaining of sterilized dogs for more than nine total hours in any 24-hour period is prohibited. Dogs may not be chained at all between sunset and sunrise. Tethers must be light-weight, tangle free, attach to a proper collar or harness, and must not place the animal in any danger.

    Chapter 11-1.6. Chaining or Tethering.

    a. Dogs must be able to move freely when chained or tethered and shall be confined for a period no greater than nine (9) hours within a twenty-four (24) hour period. The tether or chain shall be of such length as not to place the animal in any danger and shall assure that the animal will be confined to the owner's property. The chain or tether shall be tangle free. Dogs must be equipped with a properly fitting harness or buckle type collar. The tether must be made of light-weight, yet durable material, or a chain.

    b. Dogs that are not spayed or neutered will not be allowed to be tethered or chained for any period of time and must be in a completely enclosed yard or housed indoors.

    c. No dogs may be tethered or chained after dark (prior to sunrise or after sunset).


    Sea Isle City, New Jersey
    May 11, 2004

    This ordinance limits the chaining of dogs to nine hours in any twenty-four hour period. Tethers must be lightweight, at least 15 feet long, and tangle free. They must allow a dog to move freely and have access to a doghouse. Unaltered animals cannot be chained for any period of time. No dogs may be chained after 10:30 p.m.

    Subsection 5-3.9 Chaining or Tethering of Dogs: (a) Dogs must be able to move freely when chained or tethered and shall be confined for a period no greater than nine hours within a twenty-four hour period. The size of the tether or chain must be a minimum of 15 linear feet and shall remain tangle free. Dogs must be equipped with properly fitting harness or buckle type collars. The tether or chain shall be constructed of lightweight cable. A doghouse shall be accessible to dogs that are chained or tethered. (b) Dogs that are not spayed or neutered will not be allowed to be chained for any period of time and must be in a completely enclosed yard or housed indoors. (c) No dogs may be chained after the hours of 10:30 PM in the evening.


    Wildwood, New Jersey
    July 14, 2004

    This ordinance limits the chaining of dogs to nine hours in any twenty-four hour period. Tethers must be lightweight, at least 15 feet long, and tangle free. They must allow a dog to move freely and have access to a doghouse.

    Section 8-7.8 Chaining or Tethering of Dogs: Dogs must be able to move freely when chained or tethered and shall be confined for a period no greater than nine hours within a twenty-four hour period. The size of the tether or chain must be a minimum of 15 linear feet and shall remain tangle free. Dogs must be equipped with properly fitting harness or buckle type collar. The tether or chain shall be constructed of lightweight cable. A doghouse shall be accessible to dogs that are chained or tethered.


    Wildwood Crest, New Jersey
    June 14, 2004

    This ordinance limits the chaining of dogs to eight hours in any twenty-four hour period. Dogs cannot be tethered for more than four consecutive hours, and must be taken off a tether for at least one hour between confinements. Tethers must be lightweight, at least 15 feet long, and tangle free. They must allow a dog to move freely and have access to a doghouse. No dogs may be chained after 11:00 p.m.

    Section 28-9 Chaining or Tethering of Dogs: (a) Dogs must be able to move freely when chained or tethered and shall be confined for a period no greater than eight hours within a twenty-four hour period, with a maximum of four (4) hours at any one interval and a minimum one (1) hour period between confinements. The size of the tether or chain must be a minimum of fifteen (15’) linear feet and shall remain tangle free. Dogs must be equipped with properly fitting harness or buckle-type collars. The tether or chain shall be constructed of lightweight cable. A doghouse shall be accessible to dogs that are chained or tethered. (b) No dogs shall be chained after the hour of 11:00 PM in the evening.


    Canandaigua, New York
    September 1, 2005

    This ordinance prohibits the tethering of dogs for more than 16 hours in any 24- hour period and only allows tethering if certain conditions are met.

    Section 6.08.020 Definitions.
    F. Tether – chaining, tying, leashing, or tethering a dog to any object.

    Section 6.08.030 Restrictions.
    H. Tethering of Dogs Prohibited
    (1) It is prohibited to restrain a dog or puppy by a chain or tether for more than sixteen (16) hours in a twenty-four (24) period.
    (a) Any tethering system employed shall not allow the dog or puppy to leave the owner’s property.

    (b) Any tethered animal shall be arranged so that the tethering device cannot become entangled around trees, poles or other obstacles nor prevent the access to shade, food, water, and shelter.


    Huntington West Virginia
    2009

    HUNTINGTON -- After months of public debate, committee meetings and protests that involved animal lovers chaining themselves to trees at Ritter Park, the city of Huntington now has a dog tethering ordinance.
     City Council approved the ordinance Monday night by a 9-2 vote. Councilmen Jim Insco and Nate Randolph were the two dissenting votes.

    The adopted ordinance is a simplified version of the original measure that City Council debated this past summer. The original proposal limited tethering to no more than 10 hours a day and would have prohibited the practice entirely depending on the outside temperature.

    Recognizing the first proposal would be difficult, if not impossible, to enforce, Councilman Jim Ritter pared down the ordinance to prohibit tethering only when a dog's owner or guardian is not present. Tethering will still be allowed when the owner or guardian is at home, said Ritter, the ordinance's sponsor.


    Laurinburg, North Carolina
    June 20, 2000
    Dogs may not be chained for a period longer than one hour in a 24-hour period.

    Sec. 4-21. Restraint of dogs.
    When a dog is on the property of its owner or keeper and is not within a secure enclosure, it shall be under the direct control of and obedient to the owner or keeper. At all other times when a dog is on the property of its owner or keeper, it shall be kept within a secure enclosure, including a fenced in area or electronic fence, house or other building, of sufficient strength and height to prevent the dog from escaping therefrom; provided, the owner or keeper may, for a period not to exceed one (1) hour every twenty-four (24) hours, allow the dog to be tethered or chained to a stationary object or pole so long as the dog is provided sufficient water and nourishment. All dogs off of the property of the owner or keeper shall be controlled by means of a leash and under the direct control of and obedient to the owner or keeper’s command.

    Noncompliance with any of the foregoing provisions in the section 4-21 may result in the impoundment of the animal at any time, or it may result in a fine of one hundred dollars ($100.00) or both.

    Dogs utilized by law enforcement officers in the course of law enforcement activities are exempt from the section. (Code 1975, § 4-5; Ord. No. O-1997-29, 11-18-97; Ord. No. O-2000-12, § 1, 6-20-00)


    Orange County, North Carolina
    February 2009

    It shall be unlawful for any person to restrain a dog using a chain, wire or other type of tethering device in a manner prohibited by this subsection.
    1. No person shall tether, fasten, chain, tie, or restrain a dog, or cause such restraining of a dog, to a tree, fence, post, dog house, or other stationary object for more than a total of 3 hours in a 24-hour period. During periods of tethering that are not unlawful under this subsection, any tethering device used shall be at least 10 feet in length and attached in such manner as to prevent strangulation or other injury to the dog and entanglement with objects. In no event shall the time limitations established by this subsection 1 and subsection 2 below be added together to allow for tethering, fastening, chaining, tying, or restraining to either a stationary object or to a cable trolley system for more than a total of 3 hours in a 24-hour period.
    2. No person shall tether, fasten, chain, tie, or restrain a dog, or cause such restraining of a dog, to a cable trolley system, that allows movement of the restraining device, for more than a total of 3 hours in a 24-hour period. During periods of tethering that are not unlawful under this subsection, the length of the cable along which
    the tethering device can move must be at least 10 feet, and the tethering device must be of such length that the dog is able to move 10 feet away from the cable perpendicularly and attached in such manner as to prevent strangulation or other injury to the dog and entanglement with objects.


    Scotland County, North Carolina
    June 6, 2005

    This ordinance prohibits the chaining of dogs for more than one hour in any 24-hour period.

    Section 9 (H): No person shall, at any time, fasten, chain, or tie any dog or cause such dog to be fastened, chained, or tied, while such dog is on the dog owner’s property, or on the property of the dog owner’s landlord no longer than one (1) hour per day.


    North Royalton, Ohio
    July 1, 1997
    Chapter 618.05 ANIMAL CARE STANDARDS; CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.

    6. Dogs continuously maintained on a restrictive chain, rope or other kind of tether shall be deemed to be improperly confined. However, tethering may be acceptable in certain cases where adequate daily socialization and exercise off the tether have been afforded and verified. If a dog is confined on a tether, excepting periods of time that are brief and incidental, the tether shall be at least fifteen feet in length and positioned to prevent tangling and hanging. The tether must be of proper weight for the dog's size to allow for the provisions set forth in paragraph (c)(1) hereof. Logging chains are prohibited for any dog. The tethered dog shall wear a properly fitted harness or buckle-type collar and be released from the tether at least twice daily for adequate exercise. A choker-chain on the neck of a tethered dog is prohibited. No other animals shall be tethered unless under the supervision of a custodian capable of handling the animal. Collars, harnesses, halters and the like shall be properly fitted to prevent discomfort or injury.

     


    Chagrin Falls, Ohio
    June 25, 2007

    505.071 CRUELTY TO COMPANION ANIMALS

    c) No person who confines or who is the custodian or caretaker of a companion animal shall negligently do any of the following:

    3) Dogs tethered outside shall be limited to a total of nine hours in any twenty four hour period. Tethers cannot inhibit a dog's movement in any way that causes injury, entanglement, or strangulation. All tethers will be no less than twenty feet in length. Choke collars and pinch collars are prohibited for the purpose of tethering.

    4) When ambient temperatures fall below thirty degrees Fahrenheit, dogs shall be limited to a total of four hours outside, whether in a pen or on a tether. When summer temperatures exceed eighty five degrees Fahrenheit, animals have to be provided with adequate shade. Adequate shade will be shade which affords the animal the ability to be protected form direct exposure to the sun.

    6) Dogs confined to pens must have not less than 150 square feet of pen space for each dog housed.


    Middletown, Ohio
    April, 2007

    § 618.23 CONFINEMENT OF DOGS. EXHIBIT “C”
    (a) Except as otherwise limited by Section 618.17 of the Codified Ordinances, dogs may be considered to be in the reasonable control of their owner, harborer or keeper if they are enclosed or tethered on the property of such owner, harborer or keeper.
    (b) Chaining or tethering. Direct point chaining or tethering of dogs to a stationary point is prohibited. Dogs may be restrained by means of a trolley system or a tether attached to a pulley on a cable run, if the following conditions are met:
    A. Only one dog may be tethered to each cable run
    B. The tether must be attached to a properly fitting collar or harness worn by the dog, with enough room between the collar and the dog’s throat through which two adult human fingers may fit. Choke collars, prong collars and pinch collars are prohibited for purposes of tethering a dog to a cable run.
    C. The chain or tether must have swivels on both ends.
    D. The tether or chain and cable run must be of adequate size and strength to effectively restrain the dog. However, the chain or tether shall weigh no more than one-eighth (1/8) of the dog’s weight.
    E. The chain or tether must be at least fifteen (15) feet in length and attached to a pulley or trolley mounted on a cable which is also at least fifteen (15) feet in length and mounted no more than seven (7) feet above the ground.
    F. The dog shall be tethered at a sufficient distance for any other objects to prevent tangling of the chain or tether, from extending over an object or an edge that could result in strangulation and a sufficient distance from any fence to prohibit the dog access to the fence.
    G. The dog shall have continuous access to water and shelter.
    H. The dog must be spayed or neutered.
    I. No dog shall be chained or tethered for more than twelve (12) consecutive hours in a twenty-four (24) hour period.
    (c) Enclosures. Any dog enclosed in a pen or a fenced yard must have adequate space for exercise based on a dimension of at least one hundred and fifty square feet (150 sq. ft.) per dog.


    Hazleton, Pennsylvania

    Ordinance 2006-9, Dog Owner Responsibility

    2. Containment

    a. All dogs shall be securely contained to their owner's property, but may not be inhumanely restrained by tying to a restraint for more than 8 continual hours per day.


    Oak Ridge, Tennessee
    Animals may not be restrained for more than eight hours in a twenty-four hour period.
    City Code

    (b) A dog or puppy may be restrained by a fixed point chain or tether for no more than eight hours in a twenty-four hour period.
    (c) A dog may be exclusively restrained by a chain or tether provided that it is at least ten feet in length, with swivels on both ends, and is properly attached to a pulley or trolley mounted on a cable which is also at least ten feet in length and mounted at least four feet and no more than seven feet above ground level in a manner so as not to interfere or become entangled with objects on the property.
    (d) Any tethering system employed shall not allow the dog or puppy to leave the owner’s property.
    (e) No chain or tether shall weigh more than one-eighth of the dog or puppy’s body weight.
    (f) Any chain or tether must be attached to a properly fitting collar or harness worn by the dog or puppy.


    Montgomery County, Tennessee
    2010

    (e) It shall be unlawful for any animal to be confined or restrained to any stationary object for more than one (1) hour. Puppies under six (6) months of age may not be left unattended at any time while tethered. Dogs six (6) months or older, as determined by veterinary records or breeder certificates, may be restrained by means of a trolley system attached to a pulley on a cable run. Exception: An in ground fixed point cable system may be used if the system allows 360 degree movement and if the following conditions are met:
    (1) Only one dog may be confined or restrained to each cable system.
    (2) Choke collars and pinch collars are prohibited for purposes of confining or restraining.
    (3) There must be a swivel on at least one end of the restraint to minimize tangling.
    (4) The cable run must be at least twenty (20) feet in length and mounted at least four (4) feet and no more than seven (7) feet above ground level with a swivel on at least one end to minimize entanglement.
    (5) The length of the restraint to the dog’s collar should allow access to the maximum available exercise area and should allow continuous access to clean water and adequate shelter. The trolley system must be of appropriate configuration to confine the dog to the owner’s property, to prevent the restraint from extending over an object or edge that could result in injury or strangulation of the dog, and to prevent the restraint from becoming entangled with other objects or animals.
    (6) Any dog confined or restrained 24 hours a day 7 days a week must have at least 30 minutes of time spent actively with proper exercise off restraint (by means of leash walking, active play in an enclosed secured area conducive to the dogs size and age) within each 24 hour period.
    (a) Any dogs confined within a fenced yard or kennel type enclosure must have adequate space for exercise based on a dimension of at least one hundred (100) square feet.
    (7) No dog shall be confined or restrained in an area where bare earth is prevalent and no steps have been taken to prevent the area from becoming wet and muddy from precipitation. (10- 3-7)


    Danville, Virginia
    Sec. 5-25. - Adequate space for animals; time restriction on tethering companion animals.

    (a) It shall be unlawful to fail to provide any animal with adequate space. "Adequate space" means sufficient space to allow each animal to (i) easily stand, sit, lie, turn about, and make all other normal body movements in a comfortable, normal position for the animal and (ii) interact safely with other animals in the enclosure.

    (b) When a companion animal is tethered, "adequate space" means a tether that permits the above actions and is appropriate to the age and size of the companion animal. The tether must be attached to the companion animal by a properly applied collar, halter, or harness configured so as to protect the companion animal from injury and prevent the companion animal or the tether from becoming entangled with other objects or animals, or from extending over an object or edge that could result in the strangulation or injury of the companion animal. Furthermore, the tether must be at least three (3) times the length of the companion animal, as measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail, except when the companion animal is being walked on a leash or is attached by a tether to a lead line. When freedom of movement would endanger the companion animal, temporarily and appropriately restricting movement of the companion animal according to professionally accepted standards is considered to be provision of adequate space.

    (c) It shall be unlawful for any person to tether a companion animal:
    1. When the outside temperature is equal to or less than thirty-two (32) degrees Fahrenheit;
    2. In a manner as to cause injury, strangulation or entanglement of the dog on fences, trees, or other manmade or natural obstacles;
    3. To a fixed-point;
    4. That is under four (4) months of age;
    5. That is sick or injured; or
    6. For more than four (4) hours, in any twenty-four-hour period.
    (d) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor.


    Northampton County, Virginia
    May 19, 2004 - No animal shall be tethered for more than 12 hours in a 24 hour period. Tethers must be at least 10 feet long. Any violations shall constitute a Class 4 misdemeanor.

    Provisions to Section 3.1-796.66, 3.1-796.68, and 3.1-796.94

    Section 1. Care of companion animal tethered
    An animal owner in the County of Northampton shall allow each animal to
    (i) easily stand, sit, lie, turn about and make all other normal body movements in a comfortable, normal position for the animal and

    (ii) interact safely with other animals in the enclosure. When an animal is tethered, “adequate space” means a tether that permits the above actions and is appropriate to the age, size, and health of the animal; is attached to the animal by a properly applied collar, halter, or harness configured so as to protect the animal from injury and prevent the animal or tether from becoming entangled with other objects or animals, or from gaining access to public thoroughfares, or from extending over an object or edge that could result in the strangulation or injury of the animal; and is at least ten (10) feet in length or three (3) times the length of the animal whichever is longer, as measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail, except when the animal is being walked on a leash or is attached by a tether to a lead line. When freedom of movement would endanger the animal, temporarily and appropriately restricting movement of the animal according to professionally accepted standards for the species is considered provision of adequate space. Provided, however, that no animal shall be tethered for more than twelve (12) hours in a twenty-four-hour period.


    Norfolk, Virginia
    January 11, 2005 - Animals may not be tethered for more than twelve hours in a twenty-four hour period.

    Chap. 6-1. When an animal is tethered, "adequate space" means a tether that permits the above actions and is appropriate to the age, size, and health of the animal; is attached to the animal by a properly applied collar, halter, or harness configured so as to protect the animal from injury and prevent the animal or tether from becoming entangled with other objects or animals, or from gaining access to public thoroughfares, or from extending over an object or edge that could result in the strangulation or injury of the animal; and is at least five (5) feet in length or three (3) times the length of the animal whichever is longer, as measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail, except when the animal is being walked on a leash or is attached by a tether to a lead line. When freedom of movement would endanger the animal, temporarily and appropriately restricting movement of the animal according to professionally accepted standards for the species is considered provision of adequate space. Provided, however, that no animal shall be tethered for more than twelve (12) hours in a twenty-four-hour period.


    Northampton County, Virginia
    May 19, 2004
    ·
      No animal shall be tethered for more than 12 hours in a 24 hour period.

    · Tethers must be at least 10 feet long.

    · Any violations shall constitute a Class 4 misdemeanor.

    Provisions to Section 3.1-796.66, 3.1-796.68, and 3.1-796.94

    Section 1. Care of companion animal tethered

    An animal owner in the County of Northampton shall allow each animal to (i) easily stand, sit, lie, turn about and make all other normal body movements in a comfortable, normal position for the animal and (ii) interact safely with other animals in the enclosure. When an animal is tethered, “adequate space” means a tether that permits the above actions and is appropriate to the age, size, and health of the animal; is attached to the animal by a properly applied collar, halter, or harness configured so as to protect the animal from injury and prevent the animal or tether from becoming entangled with other objects or animals, or from gaining access to public thoroughfares, or from extending over an object or edge that could result in the strangulation or injury of the animal; and is at least ten (10) feet in length or three (3) times the length of the animal whichever is longer, as measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail, except when the animal is being walked on a leash or is attached by a tether to a lead line. When freedom of movement would endanger the animal, temporarily and appropriately restricting movement of the animal according to professionally accepted standards for the species is considered provision of adequate space. Provided, however, that no animal shall be tethered for more than twelve (12) hours in a twenty-four-hour period.

    Section 2. Penalty for Violation of this Ordinance


    Richmond, Virginia
    October 23, 2007

    The Richmond City Council passed an ordinance that makes it punishable by fines and jail time to leave a dog tethered for more than an hour a day. The ordinance makes it unlawful for owners to fail to give their dogs adequate space, as defined by state law, or to tether them for more than one hour cumulatively in a 24-hour period. A first offense would be a Class 3 misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of up to $500. A second offense would be a Class 2 misdemeanor, with a fine of up to $1,000 and jail up to six months. A third offense or more would be a Class 1 misdemeanor, with a fine of up to $2,500 and 12 months in jail.


    Smithfield, Virginia
    October 4, 2005
    This ordinance prohibits the tethering of dogs for more than 8 hours in any 24- hour period and forbids tethering between the hours of 11 p.m. and 6 a.m.

    Section 18-45

    (a) It shall be unlawful for any person owning and/or controlling dogs whether vaccinated or unvaccinated, licensed or unlicensed, to allow said animal to be tied or chained to dog houses, or other stationary objects for a period of time longer than 8 hours in a 24 hour period and shall be prohibited from 11:00 pm through 6:00 am.


    Staunton Virginia
    2010

    6.05.090 Tethering animals.
    (1) It shall be unlawful for any person to tether any animal less than four months of age within the city of Staunton. Animals over four months of age are prohibited from being tethered between the hours of 10:00 p.m. through 6:00 a.m. local time.

    (2) Whenever the police department or animal control officer receives a complaint as to a violation of this section, and the complaint is found to be warranted, the police department or animal control officer shall notify the person in writing to abate such violation within 30 days. If, after such written notice, the person fails to correct the violation, the police department or animal control officer shall take the necessary legal action to abate the violation by having the animal impounded or the person charged with a violation of this section, or both.

    (3) The first violation of this section shall constitute a Class 4 misdemeanor. A subsequent violation shall constitute a Class 3 misdemeanor. (Ord. 2010-14).


    Virginia Beach, Virginia
    August 31, 1999 - This ordinance prohibits the chaining of dogs for more than three total hours in any 24 hour period. Tethers must be at least three times the dog’s length.

    Section 5-19: (a) It shall be unlawful to fail to provide any animal with adequate space. “Adequate space” means sufficient space to allow each animal to
    (i) easily stand, sit, lie, turn about, and make all other normal body movements in a comfortable, normal position for the animal and

    (ii) interact safely with other animals in the enclosure. (b) When a dog is tethered, “adequate space” means a tether that permits the above actions and is appropriate to the age and size of the dog. The tether must be attached to the dog by a properly applied collar, halter, or harness configured so as to protect the dog from injury and prevent the dog or tether from becoming entangled with other objects or dogs, or from extending over an object or edge that could result in the strangulation or injury of the dog. Furthermore, the tether must be at least three times the length of the dog, as measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail, except when the dog is being walked on a leash or is attached by a tether to a lead line. When freedom of movement would endanger the dog, temporarily and appropriately restricting movement of the dog according to professionally accepted standards is considered to be provision of adequate space. (c) It shall be unlawful for any dog to be tethered for more than three (3) hours, cumulatively, in any twenty-four-hour period.


    Moundsville, West Virginia
    November 2009

    No person shall tether an animal:
    a. When the outside temperature is equal to or greater than 85 degrees Fahrenheit or equal to or less than 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
    b. In such a manner as to cause injury, strangulation or entanglement of the dog on fences, trees or other man-made or natural obstacles.
    c. With a fixed point chain or to any stationary object.
    d. After dark and before 6 AM
    e. Within 500 feet of a school
    f. That is under 6 months of age.
    g. That is sick or injured.

    CONFINEMENT REQUIREMENTS:
    Though highly discouraged, tethering is only acceptable during the permitted hours by the following methods.
    A. Dogs may be restrained by means of a trolley type system or a tether attached to a pulley on a cable run, Provided:
    1. Only one dog may be tethered to each cable run.
    2. The tether must be attached to a properly fitted buckle type collar or a harness. Choke, prong or pinch collars shall not be used to tether a dog to a cable run. A swivel must be on each end of the tether to prevent twisting and tangling.
    3. The tether and cable must be of adequate size and strength to effectively restrain the dog and must not be of excessive size or weight considering the age, size and health of the dog. Maximum weight limit of the tether, including any assembly or attachments thereto, shall be no more than 1/8 the weight of the dog.
    4. The cable run must be at least ten (10) feet in length and mounted at least four (4) feet and no more than seven (7) feet above ground level.
    5. The length of the tether from the cable run to the animal’s collar must be of such length that the dog is able to move 10 feet away from the cable perpendicularly and should allow continuous access to water and shelter. The cable system must be of the appropriate configuration to confine the animal to the owner’s property, to prevent the tether from extending over an object or an edge that could result in injury or strangulation and to prevent the tether from becoming entangled with other objects or animals. The tether must be long enough for the animal to move around and be able to urinate or defecate in an area separate from where it must eat, drink or lie down. The tether must allow the animal convenient access to food, water, dry ground or shelter. No vegetation or obstacles can restrict the movement of the animal on the tether.
    6. A shelter which is defined as having 4 sides, a roof and a solid floor and be of the appropriate size for the animal. The dog must be able to easily stand, sit, lie down, turn around and make all other normal body movements in a comfortable, normal position for the animal. It must be wind and moisture proof and of proportionate size to allow the natural body heat of the dog to be retained in cold weather.
    7. An entry way to allow the animal to easily enter and exit; the entryway must have a flap which blocks any inclement weather from entering. (wind, rain, snow, etc.)
    8. The floor shall be raised at least 2 inches above the ground and be free of cracks, holes or protruding nails or rough edges that could cause injury.
    9. The shelter shall be maintained and cleaned regularly. The area around the shelter shall be kept clean of accumulated feces, garbage and any other debris.
    10. Metal drums shall not be considered shelter.
    11. Straw, cedar chips or such like material shall be provided inside the dog house and the surrounding area.
    12. The shelter is placed in an area that provides protection from the direct rays of the sun, when sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort. Pens, fences or other such enclosures must:
    h. Allow a minimum of 150 square feet of area for each dog.
    i. Provide sufficient shade to allow the dog to be out of the direct rays of the sun when sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort. The inside of the dog house does not qualify as sufficient shade.
    j. Maintained in a clean manner and kept free from accumulated feces and debris.
    k. Provide shelter as defined in the Confinement Requirements
    Food and water:
    l. Potable water must be available at all times.
    m. It must not be allowed to freeze without replacement.
    n. The food and water container must be placed out of the sun.
    o. Food and water is to be provided in a clean container and situated or fastened in such a manner to prevent overturning.
    p. Food shall be free from contamination, wholesome, palatable and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to meet the daily requirements for the condition and size of the dog.


    Charleston, West Virginia - June 2007
    Dogs can't be tethered for more than two continuous hours or more than five times in 24 hours. Dogs can't be tethered outside for more than one hour if the temperature is greater than 90 degrees.

    Section 10.4 - Tethering of Dogs


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    Ordinances that Regulate Tethering


    Alachua County, Florida
    November 21, 2007

    The Alachua County Commission unanimously voted to ban the chaining or tethering of dogs for more than three hours in a 24-hour period. Dogs on a running or trolley-system of being chained are still allowed because the dogs can move more freely.  


    Bowling Green, Kentucky
    March 7, 2006

    This ordinance prohibits the fixed-point tethering of a dog for more than one hour in any 24-hour period. No tether may weigh more than one-eighth of the dog’s body weight, be less than 10 feet long, or attach to anything other than a properly fitting collar or harness. Dogs may be tethered to a pulley or trolley system provided that it is at least 10 feet long and no more than 7 feet above the ground.

    1. Chapter 5 (Animals) of the Code of Ordinances is hereby amended as follows:

    5-1 ANIMAL CONTROL.

    5-1.01 Definitions. As used in this Chapter:

    “Confinement” shall mean:

    b. Puppies and dogs:

    1. It is prohibited to exclusively restrain a dog or puppy by a fixed-point chain or tether. A fixed-point restraint may be used temporarily, but not to exceed one (1) hour in a twenty-four (24) hour period.

    2. A dog may be exclusively restrained by a chain or tether provided that it is at least ten (10) feet in length and attached to a pulley or trolley mounted on a cable which is also at least ten (10) feet in length and mounted no more than seven (7) feet above ground level.

    3. Any tethering system employed shall not allow the dog or puppy to leave the owner's property.

    4. No chain or tether shall weigh more than 1/8 of the dog or puppy's body weight.

    5. Any chain or tether shall be at least ten (10) feet in length and have swivels on both ends.

    6. Any chain or tether must be attached to a properly fitting collar or harness worn by the animal.


    Louisville, Kentucky

    Dogs may be tethered to a cable run, provided that the tether is at least 10 feet long, weighs no more than one-eighth the dog’s weight, and has swivels on both ends. The tether must be attached to a properly fitting collar or harness.

    Restraint

    (2) For puppies and dogs restraint shall mean on the premises of the owner and confined in a secure enclosure as previously defined, or accompanied by the owner on the owner's property and under their direct control. If off the premises of the owner, the animal must be restrained by a lead or leash and under the control of a responsible person.

    (b) A dog may be exclusively restrained by a chain or tether provided that it is at least ten (10) feet in length and attached to a pulley or trolley mounted on a cable which is also at least ten (10) feet in length and mounted no more than seven (7) feet above ground level.

    (c) Any tethering system employed shall not allow the dog or puppy to leave the owners property.

    (d) No chain or tether shall weigh more than 1/8 of the dog or puppy’s body weight.

    (e) Any chain or tether shall be at least ten (10) feet in length and have swivels on both ends.

    (f) Any chain or tether must be attached to a properly fitting collar or harness worn by the animal.


    Montgomery County, Maryland

    Amendment to the existing State and County laws against cruelty to animals to include certain practices involving the unattended restraint of a dog.

    Article II, Chapter 5, Sec. 5-201
    I. Definitions. (C) “Tether” means attaching a dog to a stationary object or pulley run by means of a chain, rope, tether, cable, or similar restraint. “Tether” does not include the use of a leash to walk a dog.

    II. Prohibited Conduct. A person must not tether a dog under circumstances that endanger its health, safety, or well being, including: (A) tethering a dog by any means other than a harness; (B) tethering a dog between the hours of midnight and five a.m. unless the Director grants a waiver based on extraordinary circumstances after determining that the proposed tethering will be safe and humane; (C) unattended tethering of a dog during a weather emergency, or a dog-control emergency declared by the Executive, the Director, or the County Health Officer; (D) using a tether that weighs more than 1/8 of the dog’s bodyweight; (E) using a tether that is less than five times the length of the dog, as measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail; (F) tethering that unreasonably limits a dog’s movement; (G) tethering under conditions where the dog or tether can become entangled on the tether or some other object; (H) tethering that restricts a dog’s access to suitable and sufficient food, clean water, and appropriate shelter; (I) tethering in unsafe or unsanitary conditions; (J) tethering that does not allow a dog to defecate or urinate in an area separate from the area where it must eat, drink, or lie down; or (K) tethering that causes injury, stress, or demonstrable socialization problems.

    III. Failure to provide relief to a dog in distress when exposed to any of the conditions listed in subsection II is proof that the dog was improperly, i.e., cruelly, tethered.


    Dennis Township, New Jersey
    August 17, 2004

    This ordinance requires that tethers be at least 15 feet long, be lightweight, remain tangle free, and attach to proper collars or harnesses. Tethers must allow dogs' free movement and access to a doghouse.

    Section 88-13. Chaining or Tethering of Dogs.

    Dogs must be able to move freely when chained or tethered. The size of the tether or chain must be a minimum of 15 linear feet and shall remain tangle free. Dogs must be equipped with properly fitted harness or buckle type collars. The tether or chain shall be constructed of lightweight cable. A doghouse shall be accessible to dogs that are chained or tethered.


    Catawba County, North Carolina
    (D) Chaining or tethering an animal to a stationary object for a period of time or under conditions that an animal control officer or animal cruelty investigator deems harmful or potentially harmful to the animal. Examples of improper chaining or tethering include, but are not limited to the following:
    (1) Using a length or weight of a chain or tether that is not appropriate for the size, weight and age of the animal. Guidelines for the proper weight and length of chains or tethers can be obtained from the animal shelter or animal control
    (2) Using a chain or tether made of rope, twine, cord or similar material.
    (3) Using a chain or tether that is less than 10 feet in length and/or does not have swivels on both ends. All chains or tethers must be attached to the animal by means of a properly fitting harness or collar of not less than one inch in width.
    (4) Using a chain or tether that exceeds ten percent of the animal’s body weight.
    (5) Allowing an animal to be chained or tethered such that the animal is not confined to the owner’s property or such that the chain or tether can become entangled and prevent the animal from moving about freely, lying down comfortable or having access to adequate food, water and shelter.
    (6) Using a chain as a primary collar. All collars used for the purpose of chaining or tethering an animal must be made of nylon or leather.


    Greenville, North Carolina
    This ordinance outlines what kind of tether may be used.

    c. 4-5. Animal care generally.
    (c) Any chain, leash, or similar device for animal restraint shall be designed and placed to prevent choking or injury to the animal. The restraining device shall be at least ten feet in length and placed on a swivel or on a chain run.


    Surry, North Carolina
    Tie-outs must be 15 feet long.

    Restraint. An animal is under restraint within the meaning of this Ordinance if it
    is:
    1) controlled by means of a chain, leash, trolley or other like device; a. No tie out device shall employ a restraint of less than fifteen (15) feet in length and must have swivels on both ends.
    b. Any chain, tether, or tie out device must be attached to a dog by means of a properly fitting harness or a buckle-type nylon/leather collar measuring not less than one (1) inch in width.
    c. Collars used to attach a dog to a tie out device shall not be a choke type.


    Washington, D.C.
    Cruel chaining of dogs prohibited by the District’s “Freedom From Cruelty to Animals Protection Act.”

    Chapter 106, Sec. 2 (b) For the purpose of this section, “cruelly chains” means attaching an animal to a stationary object or a pulley by means of a chain, rope, tether, leash, cable, or similar restraint under circumstances that may endanger its health, safety, or well-being. “Cruelly chains” includes, but is not limited to, the use of a chain, rope, tether, leash, cable, or similar restraint that: (1) Exceeds 1/8 the body weight of the animal; (2) Causes the animal to choke; (3) Is too short for the animal to move around or for the animal to urinate or defecate in a separate area from the area where it must eat, drink, or lie down; (4) Is situated where it can become entangled; (5) Does not permit the animal access to food, water, shade, dry ground, or shelter; or (6) Does not permit the animal to escape harm. (Act 13-418; June 1, 2001)

     

     


     


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